health impact of climate change in zambia

Water quality-related problems and their management are mainly recognized as local responsibilities in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Zambia Millennium Development Goals - Progress Report. Correlations with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) were used to infer how large-scale climate variability affects these attributes of rainfall and highlight where (and when) trends may contribute to more frequent crossings of critical thresholds. Its general function is to ‘protect, 1994 National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP 1994). Comments from HÃ¥kan Berg, SwedBio, Carol Bäckman, SLU and Eva Ohlsson, Sida on a previous draft are gratefully acknowledged. Global climate change is a detectable and attributable global phenomenon, yet its manifestation at the regional scale, especially within the rainfall record, can be difficult to identify. Hundreds of millions of children and their communities now face a changing world in which they are at greater risk from more violent storms, worsening droughts and floods and environmental degradation. Responsible for policy development in the mining sector. economic activities (cultivation, mining, livestock grazing, etc.). The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) reports an. A climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet. endobj Changes in air quality from climate change may impact a person’s physical and mental health. The government is drafting a National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS), which, aims to coordinate and harmonize national activities around climate change, due for completion at the end of 2010 and is being developed to assist the objectives of the, National Long Term Vision 2030 and SNDP. <> Meanwhile, with population growth, demands on available water are, increasing and are difficult to meet reliably. Small scale agricultural practices such as, continuous ploughing due to increased pressure on adjacent agricultural land, maize mono-. These problems constrain poor householdsíncome opportunities through lowering agricultural productivity and access to different non-timber forest products. Mutasa in agroecological zone II receives 750-1000mm per annum. environment in planning documents, such as the SNDP, and look at budget processes, institutions and policy instruments which matters greatly for the implementation of. Climate Change Is Having Widespread Health Impacts. The urgency for adaptation is highlighted by projections from the three reports produced by the IPCC in 2007 (IPCC 2007). MTENR is in practice too weak to fulfil its mandate to coordinate environment and natural, gives a particularly weak score of 2.5 (out of 5) on intersectoral coordination and an overall. complementarities when building resilience to climate change. Wastewater treatment is inadequate and the few existing utilities, are unable to finance operation, maintenance and investments. Improved enforcement of environmental legislation could, diminish commercial illegal harvesting of timber and wildlife and increase revenues for both, New international financing for climate change mitigation brings opportunities to address, deforestation through compensating farmers for ecosystem services that standing forests, provide. (b) Halve by 2015 the propor, safe drinking. An empirical economic assessment of impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia”, Policy Research Working Paper No. Climate Funds Update (2010) Funded Projects. solar, gas) could contribute to both reducing, deforestation and health problems due to indoor air-pollution. Also social protection might have a role to play. Although the investment amount needed to start a business has more than tripled, this amount remains low enough that formal bank loans remain an insignificant source of finance. country; disburses money earmarked for local councils. and H.A. <> Based on measurements of water quality for the source water, the treated water and the tap water taken over a 3-year period between 2009 and 2011, the evidence is that the water quality is good and meets both World Health Organization and national drinking water standards. The country also needs a new trading arrangement with the EU. Environmental degradation poses significant constraints to key growth sectors such as agriculture and tourism. stream Given the emphasis on these sectors as. The general pattern is expected to be of less, rainfall in the early part of the rainy season (Sep-Nov), but an increase towards the end, (March-May). Accessed 18/10/10. Hassan (eds), 2000. Lusaka City Council. However, variable rainfall coupled with a lack of proper management, water infrastructure and a. concern in some rivers, like the Kafue on the Copperbelt. An estimated 78,000 people are directly, dependent on charcoal production; and there are indications that several hundred thousands of, people are indirectly dependent on charcoal production. endobj Responsible for policy direction for the provision of technical education. Firm size has grown on average in terms of output and employment, and increasing divergence in firm sizes has been associated with a significant rise in specialization and outsourcing among firms in the cluster. the Lusaka aquifer) appear to be under. This study assessed the factors affecting the adoption and impact of improved fallows on a commonly grown cash crop, cotton, in the cotton growing provinces of Zambia. Preventing effects of drought and HIV could release potential for improvement and, when supported by national nutrition programs, help to accelerate the rates of improvement, now generally averaging around 0.3 percentage points per year, to those needed to meet Millennium Development Goals (0.4 to 0.9 percentage points per year). Initiates policies on agriculture, fisheries and food security; mandate for promoting the development of commercial fishing, enforce, regulations and laws and for registration of fishermen and their, Authority to oversee all fisheries gazetted areas, Responsible for policy development on water resources and ener, Is mandated to carry out the functions of land administration in Zambia, Is responsible for public health and development of related p, Oversees the Curriculum development Centre, University of Za. To evaluate changes in rainfall affecting maize cropping, daily rainfall observations from 104 stations across Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were used to detect trends in planting dates, rainfall cessation and duration of the rainfall season, as well as number of dry days, length of dry spells and measures of rainfall intensity during critical periods for growing maize. AAO mainly affected raindays towards the end of the season when maize was planted late. the Zambia economic study and includes expansion of the hydro-meteorological monitoring, network as well as investment to improve and expand water and sanitation infrastructure. measurable targets and indicators relating to environmental concerns, In general climate change is well addressed in the draft SNDP, however there are large, variations in the level of integration of climate change issues between different sectors. Climate change is likely to bring additional burdens both through direct effects such as more, favourable conditions for transmission of communicable diseases, and also via indirect, pathways such as effects on food security and nutrition. directly affected, often with severe consequences as they lack alternatives. It is the joint impact of chemicals that matters for ensuring sustainable development. There are initial experiences from. The Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) pentad data are used to identify dry spells, which are defined here as a pentad with mean daily rainfall less than 1 mm. http://www.climatefundsupdate.org/projects. Due mainly to inadequate funding of MLGH less than 10 of the, country´s 72 Councils have managed to develop the by law required Integrated Development, Environment and natural resources management as well as climate change adaptation, programmes are heavily dependent on international funding and many different, in the Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources sector, components. Investments particularly in agriculture. An attempt to incorporate climate, change into this analysis estimates that it could increase these numbers to 433,000 for the. projects of the type proposed in the NAPA. ........................................... What are the effects of the environmental challenges on poverty and. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. These impacts threaten our health by affecting the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the weather we experience.The severity of these health risks will depend on the ability of public health and safety systems to address or prepare for thes… environment (such as acid rains and desertification). I, Opportunities exist to reduce climate change impacts through adaptation. hold potential to protect smallholder farmers from drought losses. WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF (2008) Epidemiological factsheet on HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Overall trends in child nutrition are improving as national averages; the improvement is slowed but not stopped by the effects of intermittent droughts. not have enough capacity to give all mainstreaming issues full attention. The increasing cost of inputs and high transport costs make external inputs unaffordable for the smallholder farmer (Spencer, 2002). Generally, it has been observed that though the improved fallow does increase maize yields, its efficacy on welfare in terms of increased income is low. for floods and droughts, undermines undermines social economic development and, Zambia, mainly from using biomass fuel (such as firewood and charcoal) for cooking. The questions we raise are derived from th, Intermittent food insecurity due to drought and the effects of HIV/AIDS affect child nutritional status in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we have shown the importance of remote sensing applications and community forestry for forest management, discussed as a case study on Cambodian forest management. increasing water demand of the population and economic activities is currently not met. When activities such as mining pollute the water and contaminate the food, these people are. IFFPRI Discussion Paper 00890, redd.org/UNREDDProgramme/CountryActions/zambia/tabid/1029/language/en-. (MFNP) allocates funds in a sectoral manner, have been involved in supporting a wide variety of projects. Climate change is resulting in profound, immediate and worsening health impacts, and no country is immune, a major new report from more than … Conducted for DFID, the Netherlands, Sweden, Nor, Bigsten, Arne and Tengstam, Sven 2009. Revenues from mining of finite natural resources have not been translated into human development, as indicated by the negative adjusted net savings in Zambia (a World Bank sustainability indicator). And, this is one of the main objectives of Cambodian National Policy on water supply. The new National Policy on the Environment, is supposed to address the scattered policy framework for environment and natural resources, management, but if it is not backed by a strong political commitment and financial resources. the environment and control pollution’. Zambia is highly dependent on, agriculture (including crop and animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries). For Zambia important adaptation opportunities which can enhance food production and, security include diversification of cropping, water-saving techniques, small-scale irrigation, schemes especially if linked to micro-hydro dams and the further development of systems for, seasonal forecasting and the dissemination of such forecasts. This research monograph focuses on agriculture. division of roles and responsibilities of different actors working on climate change in Zambia, resulting in a lack of coordination and duplication of efforts. The attributable risks were 4.9% for temperature and 2.4% for rainfall. The livelihoods of, healthy ecosystems and biodiversity. %PDF-1.5 However, the real test of integration of environment and climate change in the SNDP will be, whether there is the institutional capacity and funding to successfully implement the, Policy and legislation for environment and natural resources management: Zamb, environmental law is spread over more than 33 sets of legislation and can be, fragmented, with dispersed responsibility across at least ten line ministries. The same year, Zambia’s mines accounted for an estimated 9% of total world cobalt output and 4% of world, Mining is typically associated with large. Whilst weather extremes and hazards are inevitable, the. Since poverty is most severe in the rural areas it is important to make agriculture more efficient by improving roads and electricity, extension services and education. One example is the 200-million-dollar mine, which Chiman opened about two years ago in Kabwe, a mining town 150 kilometres north of, the capital, Lusaka. The mining sector was dominated by copper and cobalt production and the country was a leading producer of cobalt, copper, and gem-quality emerald. A key lesson is that there is a need to look beyond the integration of. We purposefully address academic, policy and practical dimensions of capacity development because we believe that there is a need to develop a closer connection between the research, policy and practice communities. Zambia has low life expectancy, high levels of child mortality and high rates of malaria, cholera and other communicable diseases. However, there. habitat, and undermines key ecosystem services such as climate and water regulation. Agricultural growth to date has largely passed these farmers by. They conclude that Zambia could produce higher levels of income and welfare if its environmental assets are planned, allocated, managed and governed better. Policy framework for managing environmen, 6.3. In response to these impacts, Zambia is working to develop sustainable and appropriate programmes for both crops and livestock in the face of climate … Moreover, hydropower dam construction and climate change may also lead to the deterioration of water sources quality. In addition 75% of the population rely on biomass for energy, which is a major, driver of deforestation and carbon emissions, Tourism: The tourism sector has been growing, and it is expected to be a large contributor to, Zambia’s economic development. Loss of ecosystem services and environmental degradation is largely unaccounted for in national accounts and statistics, which imply that real economic growth most likely is significantly lower than what the GDP growth rate indicates. Recurring droughts continue to impact rural livelihoods and degrade the environment. national heritage sites and manage their aesthetic value. This is possible because the source water is of good quality. The, Energy chapter includes several programmes for both adaptation and mitigation, including, programmes for the development of renewable energy. remains one of the low-income countries in Africa with low levels of human development, and high levels of corruption. In addition, a tendency during 1979 to 2002 towards an increasing frequency of heavier rainfall events was observed over Angola/Namibia in the west and Tanzania/Mozambique in the east. In 2004, Zambia's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 5.0% and inflation declined to 18% from 21.5% in 2003. figure fluctuates with the rainfall patterns, as the irrigation potential is not fully exploited. environmental mainstreaming and addressing environmental problems. Zambia, along with several of its African neighbors, ranks among the countries most exposed to climate change. Poverty levels remain high in Zambia, and 68% of the population falls below the poverty line. However, after the privatisation of the copper mining industry in 1998, extensive tax, reductions were introduced for mining concessions and the government lost valuable, revenues: in 1992, budget revenues from copper mining taxes was $200m, while in 2004 it, lead dust in soil and metals in water are, In 2008, significant new legislation concerning the mining sector was, implemented, for instance related to a considerable increase of taxes and royalties on mining. present considerable risk to subterranean and surface pollution of water. However, rich natural resource endowments do not need to be a, . It explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. vocational training and entrepreneurship training. Although individual extreme, events cannot be linked to climate change, the likelihood of severe events such as these will, increase. Indoor air pollution, mainly from using biomass fuel (such as firewood and charcoal) for, cooking, is a serious health treat in Zambia (see Table 2), with disproportionate impacts on, mining areas and urban centres, mainly felt around fertiliser and cement manufacturers, lime. Report will be published during 2010, but was not available for this study. in the environment, ostensibly an action plan for the NCS; but also prepared in response, to World Bank requirements to cover environmental issues if Zambia is to be able to, management of National Parks and for the conservation and enhancement of wildlife, ecosystem, biodiversity and also for the establishment, control and management of Game, Management Areas and recently the management of wetlands. In the agricultural, sector these include diversification of cropping, water-saving techniques, small-scale, irrigation schemes especially if linked to micro-hydro dams and the further development of, systems for seasonal forecasting and the dissemination of such forecasts. Land degradation is posing a severe threat to agricultural productivity. 3.3 Impacts on Economic Development and Key Sectors, Zambia has had a positive economic growth trend during the 2000s (until the global financial, crisis, which affected also Zambia). The findings can help us better understand and focus on preventive actions and target appropriate risk communication. The PP. Trends are discussed relative to changes projected in empirically downscaled scenarios of rainfall from 7 general circulation models for the 2046-2065 period, assuming an SRES A2 emissions scenario. Although strengthening capabilities for disaster early warning systems within the, Zambian Meteorological Department is repeatedly mentioned in official climate change, documents, for example the NAPA and the NCCRS, it is not clear what the coordination, mechanism between the DMMU and the proposed institutions for coordinating climate, change activities will be. %���� Currently more than 90% of the land is under traditional tenure and insecurity, of tenure may have significant effects on the willingness of farmers to invest and sustainable, . Facing severe competition, more firms have begun to upgrade their product quality. The near complete lack of reference to REDD+ in the SNDP is a, significant gap, which will need to be addressed in order to realise the potential for REDD+ to. Zambia is a landlocked southern African country with an area of 752,614 square kilometers. Development and Climate Change, World Development Report 2010, urban areas in Zambia: Preparatory study for possible Swedish Support. However, Climate change: Zambia has ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, (1993) and the Kyoto Protocol (2006), and has submitted both a NAPA and First National, Communication. growth sectors are agriculture, mining, tourism, manufacturing, commerce and trade, information and communications technology (ICT), energy, education and skills, development, health and water and sanitation, The SNDP includes “Environment” as one of several cross–. This region often experiences half or more of the season under dry spells. government as a priority environmental challenge. nternational investors in Zambia’s mineral wealth, As Zambia’s wildlife is declining, it will affect, . endowed with enough water to meet the demands of a growing population. tobacco, cotton, tea, coffee, and sugar) also contributes to land degradation through pollution from the use of, agrochemicals and land clearing. waters also suffer from other water-related diseases such as Bilharzia and River blindness. there is a clear risk that it will not be translated into practical action. The Millennium Development Goals. Institutional factors found to increase the farmer’s likelihood of adopting the improved fallow in the cotton production systems included; farmer membership to a cooperative, receiving improved fallow seedlings from the government projects and having information on agroforestry tree species. It is, a serious health treat in Zambia (see Table 2), with disproportionate impacts on women, and children. Programme, Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources. In this chapter, we examine water and sanitation services in Africa, highlighting the challenges of achieving the two dimensions of SDG 6. The area is known as one of the world's most polluted places from, decades of mining substances like copper and lead, with serious health implications for, residentsThe copper industry is the largest air polluter in Zamiba: smelting of the copper ore, release an estimated 1,250 ton of sulphur dioxide (SO, above WHO and Zambian guidelines in some places, with effects on both health and the. http://apps.who.int/nutrition/landscape/report.aspx?iso=zmb. just one solitary mention of REDD+ in the document. In the SNDP there is no recognition of the opportunities for REDD+, and Payment for, Ecosystem Services more generally, in achieving both conservation of natural resources and, contributing to rural poverty alleviation. The first is Strengthening Capacity of the MTENR, which will help the ministry, to coordinate more effectively the activities of the sector. Potential disruptions of electricity, and fuel supplies are threats to the mining sector, and, droughts and low hydropower-production thus affect, provides an opportunity for economic growth, but, also highlights new challenges for the government. Kenneth Kaunda, the first president of Zambia, says help from developed countries will be crucial in ensuring that countries like Zambia can cope with the effects of climate change. economic growth and reduction of poverty in Zambia due to the country’s natural assets (land. x��X[o�6~��p�b�y�8r뚢��ÀyPm9��Kf+-��˶96�e�����ܨ@�޿�^�]���N�π��J�ZeܽQ0��bJ���hЌƺ��w� .�Π{2/�Q:(�IQ���l���YQ�&w��?�Y�:�ϧi�Ϧ��ӷ�=�8��|i��� �$�J�:��(f�J@bݛ�#��� nC�A�s'����yw4�݆�8U�a�k��"�)�63�I٢f\���p���An�$�$� �h � I� �$��R ��C7`���V�1 L�j7IeD����*1$i%��@)��[M0qۀl������)�E��8�b��}�0���b���5�ŔvW��ڹ�ؤ:�!2��8F�����(�O���Y�x�eQ�ə!�V1� �2cLun>���y���Hy��#�ȋ����ƣIF1S�'��Əx�C8�b�PJ��"B%D�v����؝��.����� ��u%Ų�R&I�2}�M�c��8����a� Authority for the CDM is housed in the Ministry of Tourism. environmental and natural resources in harmony with the national development policy. All major fish resources are over-exploited. Over the last 50 years, human activities – particularly the burning of fossil fuels – have released sufficient quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to trap additional heat in the lower atmosphere and affect the global climate. Wood fuel (charcoal and firewood) is by far the most important source of household, energy in Zambia, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. Climate changes are predicted to increase mortality levels associated with climate-sensitive diseases Health in general will also be affected by climate hazards in terms of heat stress caused by the rising temperatures, increase in water borne diseases and malnutrition due to insufficient food. GRZ 2010a. Investors in this sector may not have, paid sufficient attention to environmental, issues: One indication is the recent collapse of, bridges as a result of the release of mining, industry, another growth sector with significant, managed biodiversity. understand the principles and objectives of environmental management. stress due to over-extraction and pollution (pollution from mining, leakages from latrines. The management of water quality is an important part of natural resource governance. Sixth National Development Plan. The DALY, considerably higher in Zambia and Mozambique than in Kenya and Tanzania, and especially, serious for children under five. 0 ( u s i n g I J G J P E G v 6 2 ) , q u a l i t y = 9 0 schemes also hold potential to protect smallholder farmers from drought losses. Sixth National Development Plan, According to World Bank data the rate of deforestation in Za, Inland waters and wetlands, such as Lake Bangweulu Lukanga, Ntipa, Mweru; Itetzhi-tehzi, Lusiwashi, and Kariba, as, : poses one of the most serious threats to biodiversity and sustained food, production and Zambia's development in general.

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